Vascular anomalies of the upper limb

J Hand Surg Eur Vol. 2019 Mar;44(3):233-241. doi: 10.1177/1753193418808130. Epub 2018 Oct 31.


Vascular anomalies are common in the upper extremities, but there continues to be a relative paucity of information about them in publications dealing with surgery in the hands and upper limbs. The wide spectrum of pathology and an inconsistent use of terminology make vascular anomalies susceptible to incorrect diagnosis and as a result, to misdirected management. This article aims to provide an update on vascular anomalies relevant to the upper limbs, focusing on significant advances in pathogenesis and genetics, classification systems, diagnosis and treatment.

Keywords: Vascular anomalies; hand; upper limb; vascular tumours.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases / genetics
  • Humans
  • Musculoskeletal Abnormalities / genetics
  • Mutation
  • Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / diagnosis*
  • Neoplasms, Vascular Tissue / therapy*
  • Upper Extremity / blood supply*
  • Vascular Malformations / classification
  • Vascular Malformations / diagnosis*
  • Vascular Malformations / therapy*


  • Class I Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases
  • PIK3CA protein, human