A logical relationship for schizophrenia, bipolar, and major depressive disorder. Part 4: Evidence from chromosome 4 high-density association screen

J Comp Neurol. 2019 Feb 1;527(2):392-405. doi: 10.1002/cne.24543. Epub 2018 Oct 31.


Convergent evidence from genetics, symptomatology, and psychopharmacology imply that there are intrinsic connections between schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BPD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). Familial clustering of SCZ, BPD, and MDD was systematically investigated [Aukes et al. (2012); Genetics in Medicine 14(3): 338-341], and any two or even three of these disorders could co-exist in some families. A total of 56,134 SNPs on chromosome 4 were genotyped by Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP array 6.0 on 119 SCZ, 253 BPD (Type-I), 177 MDD patients, and 1,000 controls in a relative homogenous population in China. Susceptibility genes on chromosome 4 for the three major psychiatric disorders were systematically identified including outstanding genes (CXCL13, FSTL5, GLRB, KCNIP4, LPHN3, MAPK10, NPFFR2, NSUN7, PCDH10, PCDH7, PPA2, PPARGC1A, SCD5, SCFD2, and UNC5C). Unexpectedly, flanking genes for up to 93.67% of the associated SNPs were also confirmed in an enlarged cohort of 986 SCZ patients. Taken all relevant evidence together, our chromosome 4 results implicate that both of bipolar and major depressive disorders might be subtypes of SCZ rather than independent disease entity. Furthermore, similar evidence was also observed on chromosome 3, 5, 6, 7, and 8 [2018; The Journal of Comparative Neurology 526(1):59-79; Chen et al. (2017); American Journal of Translational Research 9(5):2473-2491; Chen et al. (2016); Current Molecular Medicine, 16(9):840-854; Chen et al. (2015); Behavioural Brain Research, 293:241-51; Chen et al. (2016); Molecular Neurobiology, 54(8):5868-5882].

Keywords: bipolar disorder (RRID:SCR_001541); gene (RRID:SCR_008190); major depressive disorder (RRID:SCR_005835); schizophrenia (RRID:SCR_001541).

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Bipolar Disorder / genetics*
  • Chromosomes, Human, Pair 4*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / genetics*
  • Female
  • Genetic Predisposition to Disease
  • Genome-Wide Association Study
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide
  • Schizophrenia / genetics*