Objective:: To describe dynamic 18F-flumethycholine PET (dPET) and dynamic contrast enhancement MR (DCE MR) parameters in localized high-risk prostate cancer (PCa), and determine whether these differ from normal prostate. Furthermore, to determine whether a correlation exists between dPET and DCE MR parameters.
Methods:: 41 consenting patients who underwent prostate DCE MR and dPET were included in this institutionally approved study. Intraprostatic lesions on MR were assigned a PI-RADS v2 score, and focal lesions on PET were documented. All lesions were correlated with pathology. Quantitative and semi-quantitative DCE MR and two-tissue compartmental model dPET parameters were determined and tumor-to-normal gland ratios (T/N) for these parameters were calculated. Finally, dPET and DCE MR correlation was estimated using Spearman correlation coefficients.
Results:: There were 46 malignant lesions per standard of reference. On dPET, peripheral zone (PZ) tumors had higher K1 (p < 0.001), and a T/N ratio ≥2 was significant (p < 0.001). On DCE MR, the parameters in, kep, Ktrans and quantitative iAUC were higher for PZ and non-PZ tumors than corresponding normal tissue (p < 0.001); for PZ tumors, a T/N ratio ≥ 1.5 for Ktrans and pei was significant (p = 0.0019 and 0.0026, respectively). Moderate Spearman correlation (0.40 < ρ < 0.59) was found between dPET K1 and DCE MR Ktrans and pei.
Conclusion:: In patients with high-risk PCa, quantitative dPET and DCE-MR parameters in primary tumors differ from normal tissue. Only moderate correlation exists between K1 (dPET) and Ktrans and pei (DCE MR). The incremental value of any of these parameters to PI-RADS v2 warrants further investigation.
Advances in knowledge:: Unique quantitative and semi-quantitative FCH PET/MR parameters in PCa differ from normal gland, and should be further investigated to determine their potential contribution to PI-RADS v2 in the detection of clinically significant PCa.