An Evidence-Based Approach to Management of Pectus Excavatum and Carinatum

Ann Plast Surg. 2019 Mar;82(3):352-358. doi: 10.1097/SAP.0000000000001654.


Pectus excavatum (PE) and pectus carinatum (PC) are the most common congenital chest wall anomalies. Current research suggests that PE and PC may result from overgrowth of the sternocostal cartilages. This can produce a deformation that displaces the sternum inward as in PE or outward as in PC. The etiology, clinical presentation, evaluation, and management of PE and PC are reviewed. Varied clinical presentations, cardiopulmonary effects, and psychosocial aspects are described.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Evidence-Based Medicine
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Funnel Chest / diagnostic imaging
  • Funnel Chest / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pectus Carinatum / diagnostic imaging
  • Pectus Carinatum / surgery*
  • Plastic Surgery Procedures / methods*
  • Quality of Life
  • Risk Assessment
  • Severity of Illness Index
  • Sternum / abnormalities
  • Sternum / surgery*
  • Thoracic Wall / abnormalities
  • Thoracic Wall / surgery
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • Treatment Outcome