Psychiatric disorders are significantly common complications among patients suffering from inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Affective temperament is a concept of core personality traits, which can decribe the vulnerability to mood disorders, therefore its evaluation might convey useful information about patients' mental status in autoimmune disorders. The aim of the study was to evaluate the affective temperament in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) as characteristic features of these diseases, but also in the clinical course and the severity of anxiety and depression.Due to our knowledge this is the first study of this kind. The study enrolled 130 patients with IBD, including 68 with CD and 62 with UC. We used TEMPS-A to evaluate affective temperament and HADS scales to assess the intensity of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Harvey Bradshaw scale, Crohn's Disease Activity Index (CDAI) and Mayo Score were used to evaluate clinical severity of the diseases. We observed significantly higher prevalence of depressive, cyclothymic and anxiety temperaments in CD patients compared to the control group. Harvey Bradshaw scale, CDAI and Mayo Self Report showed statistically significant outcomes, including significant positive correlations with depressive, cyclothymic and anxiety subscales of TEMPS-A, and negative correlation with the hyperthymic temperament in CD subjects. Our findings indicate significant differences between CD and UC due to temperament traits, and suggest distinct pathogenesis of mood disorders in IBD.