Combination of singularly perturbed vector field method and method of directly defining the inverse mapping applied to complex ODE system prostate cancer model

J Biol Dyn. 2018 Dec;12(1):983-1008. doi: 10.1080/17513758.2018.1541104.


We propose a new method to solve a system of complex ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with hidden hierarchy. Given a complex system of the ODE, the hierarchy of the system is generally hidden. Once we reveal the hierarchy of the system, the system can be reduced into subsystems called slow and fast subsystems. This division of slow and fast subsystems reduces the analysis and hence reduces the computation time, which can be expensive. In our new method, we first apply the singularly perturbed vector field method that is the global quasi-linearization method. This method exposes the hierarchy of a given complex system. Subsequently, we apply a version of the homotopy analysis method called the method of directly defining the inverse mapping. We applied our new method to the immunotherapy of advanced prostate cancer.

Keywords: Asymptotic Analysis; Mathematical Biology Model; PSA; Qualitative theory; Semi-analytical method; immunotherapy; ordinary differential equations; prostate cancer; tumour.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Androgens / metabolism
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Humans
  • Immunotherapy
  • Male
  • Models, Biological*
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / blood
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / immunology
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / therapy
  • T-Lymphocytes / metabolism


  • Androgens
  • Prostate-Specific Antigen