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Review
. 2019 Jan;59:6-11.
doi: 10.1016/j.jocn.2018.10.034. Epub 2018 Oct 29.

Influence of Microglia and Astrocyte Activation in the Neuroinflammatory Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease: Rational Insights for the Therapeutic Approaches

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Review

Influence of Microglia and Astrocyte Activation in the Neuroinflammatory Pathogenesis of Alzheimer's Disease: Rational Insights for the Therapeutic Approaches

Mir Hilal Ahmad et al. J Clin Neurosci. .

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common progressive neurodegenerative disorder is characterized by the formation of extracellular amyloid plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Increasing evidences suggest a link between neuroinflammation and neuronal dysfunction in AD, orchestrated by the progressive activation of microglial cells and astrocytes with the consequent overproduction of proinflammatory molecules. The concomitant release of anti-inflammatory mediators antagonizes the inflammatory processes and leading to the severity of the AD pathology. The simultaneous detection of these inflammatory molecules in the pre-symptomatic stage may help in the early diagnosis of the AD. We have discussed the impact of microglia and astrocytic cells, the principal agents in the neuroinflammation process, in relation to the progression of the AD. Modulation of the risk factors and targeting of these immune mechanisms could lead to better therapeutic or preventive strategies for the AD. Further studies need to determine, how the inhibition of inflammatory factors could be used for the AD alternative therapies.

Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease; Astrocytes; Cytokines; Microglia; Neuroinflammation.

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