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. 2018 Oct;59(10):514-518.
doi: 10.11622/smedj.2018125.

Managing Challenging Behaviours in Dementia

Free PMC article

Managing Challenging Behaviours in Dementia

Chun How Ooi et al. Singapore Med J. .
Free PMC article


Dementia is a condition marked by the progressive and irreversible clinical syndrome of cognitive decline that is eventually severe enough to interfere with daily living. Management of dementia is often complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. This article discusses the behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), such as agitation, insomnia, restlessness, hallucinations, anxiety and depressed mood, for which patients and their caregivers commonly seek medical advice from their primary care clinician. These symptoms can cause significant distress to patients, their families and caregivers, and may even lead to the patient being prematurely institutionalised. Management consists of assessment of BPSD and supporting the needs of the family, especially those of the caregiver, and can be both non-pharmacological and pharmacological.

Keywords: behavioural symptoms; dementia; neurocognitive disorders; primary health care; treatment and management.

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