Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, a condition most commonly associated with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, is an abnormal communication between the pulmonary artery and pulmonary vein without an intervening capillary communication. Although asymptomatic in ~ 50% individuals, it can present with the dreaded complications of stroke or intracranial abscess in high-risk individuals including pregnant women, if untreated. The mainstay of treatment is now endovascular embolization of the feeding artery which can alleviate the symptoms and prevent these complications. In this review, we describe the pathophysiology, methods of screening, diagnostic workup and treatment of these vascular lesions with a particular focus on the currently used embolization techniques and their outcomes.
Keywords: Coil; Embolization; Endovascular therapy; Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT); Microvascular plug; Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM).