Movement Modifications Related to Psychological Pressure in a Table Tennis Forehand Task

Percept Mot Skills. 2019 Feb;126(1):143-156. doi: 10.1177/0031512518809725. Epub 2018 Nov 2.


Although many studies on choking under pressure used closed skills, such as golf putting, we examined the influence of pressure on movement during a dynamic skill by studying participants' kinematic and kinetic changes during a table tennis forehand task under pressure. Thirty novice table tennis players hit forehand shots toward a target for 135 practice trials and then performed 10 no-pressure and 10 pressure trials. We added psychological pressure by instructing participants they could earn monetary rewards for successful performance and by cancelling accumulated scores for a poor performance. We measured racket head and ball movements as kinematic variables and grip force as a kinetic variable. We also measured state anxiety and heart rate as checks on our manipulation of psychological pressure. In the pressure condition, both state anxiety and heart rate increased significantly ( p < .025), though the pressure level was relatively small. Analysis of kinematic measures revealed that back swing and forward swing were reduced in length; speed of forward swing and ball speed decreased significantly ( p < .008) under pressure. Also, under pressure, ball and racket contact point shifted forward significantly ( p < .008) to reduce the distance between impact and target locations, and performance declined as the ball-landing locations shifted leftward ( p < .007). Grip force showed no significant change. We conclude that, under pressure, movement was modified toward reduced displacement and lower speed in an apparent risk-aversive hitting strategy; these modifications resulted in a performance decrement.

Keywords: choking under pressure; kinematics; kinetics; strategy; table tennis.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anxiety / psychology*
  • Biomechanical Phenomena / physiology*
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / physiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Psychomotor Performance / physiology*
  • Tennis / physiology*
  • Tennis / psychology*
  • Young Adult