Water fluoridation is the most widespread measure to prevent dental caries but its relationship with the development of type-1 diabetes (T1D), which has been increasing by 2-5% worldwide, is not quite well understood.
Aim: This study evaluated if fluoride (F) administered in the drinking water can prevent or reduce the development of T1D in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, as well as to explore the underlying mechanisms.
Materials and methods: Twenty-four weaning NOD mice received water containing 0, 10 or 50 ppm F for 21 days. Plasma glucose and insulin were analyzed. Quantitative proteomic analysis was conducted in the liver and gastrocnemius muscle.
Results: Animals treated with 10 ppm F had significantly lower glucose levels than the control group, but there was no significant difference among the groups in relation to insulin. The % of β-cell function was significantly higher in the 10 ppm F group. Changes in the proteomic profile of muscle and liver were seen among the groups. In the muscle, the 10 ppm F group presented, when compared with control, increased expression of proteins involved in energy metabolism. The 50 ppm F group, compared with control, presented increased expression of proteins related to muscle contraction, differentiation of brown adipose tissue and apoptosis. For the liver, the 10 ppm F group had increase in proteins involved in energy metabolism and protein synthesis, in respect to control. There was also an increase in isoforms of Glutathione S transferase, which was confirmed by Western blotting. In the group treated with 50 ppm F, proteins related to ROS metabolism and energetic metabolism were altered.
Conclusion: Increased expression of antioxidant proteins by treatment with low F concentration may possibly help to explain protection against the development of T1D, which should be better explored in future mechanistic studies.
Keywords: Diabetes; Glycemia; Insulinemia; Liver; Proteomic Analysis; Water fluoridation.
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