The occurrence of bisphenol plasticizers in paired dust and urine samples and its association with oxidative stress

Chemosphere. 2019 Feb;216:472-478. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.10.090. Epub 2018 Oct 16.


Bisphenol A diglycidy ether (BADGE) and its derivatives are epoxy resins and widely used as emerging plasticizers in food packages and material coating. Though known as endocrine disruptors, little information is available on their occurrence, exposure routes and toxicity. Besides, the analysis of BADGE and its derivatives has always been a challenge due to their reactive chemical properties and the background contamination. Therefore, we firstly developed a novel water-free method to analyze BADGE and its derivatives in dust samples together with other two typical plasticizers bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol S (BPS). In order to investigate the levels in paired dust and urine samples, 33 paired samples were collected from Singapore. In both dust and urine samples, the predominant compounds were BPA, BADGE-2H2O and BPS. A significantly positive correlation of BPA levels in paired dust and urine samples was observed in this small-scale study. To tentatively explore the human health effect from exposure to these bisphenol plasticizers, we assessed the correlation between the urinary concentrations of these compounds and oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress biomarker. The result showed that 8-OHdG levels in urine samples was positively correlated with urinary BPA level and body mass index (BMI), suggesting that elevated oxidative stress might be associated with BPA exposure and obesity. In the future, a larger scale study is warranted due to the limited sample size in this study.

Keywords: Bisphenol A diglycidyl ether; Bisphenol plasticizers; Dust; Urine; and oxidative stress.

MeSH terms

  • Benzhydryl Compounds / chemistry*
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / urine
  • Biomarkers
  • Dust / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Oxidative Stress / physiology*
  • Phenols / chemistry*
  • Phenols / urine
  • Plasticizers / chemistry*


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Biomarkers
  • Dust
  • Phenols
  • Plasticizers
  • bisphenol A