Two-year survey of etiologic agents of diarrheal disease at San Lazaro Hospital, Manila, Republic of the Philippines

J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Jul;25(7):1143-7. doi: 10.1128/jcm.25.7.1143-1147.1987.


The prevalence of bacterial pathogens and rotavirus in 2,908 patients with diarrhea who were admitted to San Lazaro Hospital in Manila in 1983 and 1984 was determined. One or more enteric pathogens were isolated or detected in samples from 1,698 (58.4%) patients. Isolation rates for the various enteropathogens were as follows: rotavirus, 30.6%; Shigella spp., 11.6%; Salmonella spp., 9.2%; enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (1983 only), 7.8%; Vibrio cholerae biotype eltor, 3.8%; non-O1 V. cholerae, 2.8%; Vibrio parahaemolyticus, 1.7%; other Vibrio spp., 1.1%; Campylobacter jejuni, 3.0%; Aeromonas hydrophila, 1.3%; and Plesiomonas shigelloides 1.1%. Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica were detected in 0.6 and 0.1%, respectively, of stool samples examined. Determination of the etiologic role of isolates was complicated by one or more of the following factors: isolation of multiple enteric pathogens (302 cases); isolation of Salmonella spp., enterotoxigenic E. coli, and C. jejuni from a similar proportion of asymptomatic control patients and patients with diarrhea; and isolation of a high proportion of certain pathogens (especially Salmonella spp.) only from enrichment broth, suggesting infection with a small number of organisms. Isolation of V. cholerae eltor was seasonal, with the majority of cases occurring in the rainy months. In addition, the number of patients with diarrhea increased with the onset of the monsoon rains and peaked during the months of maximum rainfall. Rotavirus infection occurred in both children and adults throughout the year and was the most frequently identified cause of diarrhea in children under 5 years of age. Shigella spp. were the most common agents of diarrhea in adults.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Campylobacter fetus / isolation & purification
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diarrhea / microbiology*
  • Diarrhea, Infantile / microbiology
  • Enterobacteriaceae / isolation & purification*
  • Eukaryota / isolation & purification*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Middle Aged
  • Philippines
  • Prospective Studies
  • Rotavirus / isolation & purification*
  • Vibrio / isolation & purification*