Toll-like receptor ligand-dependent inflammatory responses in chick skeletal muscle myoblasts

Dev Comp Immunol. 2019 Feb;91:115-122. doi: 10.1016/j.dci.2018.10.013. Epub 2018 Oct 30.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a group of sensory receptors which are capable of recognizing a microbial invasion and activating innate immune system responses, including inflammatory responses, in both immune and non-immune cells. However, TLR functions in chick myoblasts, which are myogenic precursor cells contributing to skeletal muscle development and growth, have not been studied. Here, we report the expression patterns of TLR genes as well as TLR ligand-dependent transcriptions of interleukin (IL) genes in primary-cultured chick myoblasts. Almost TLR genes were expressed both in layer and broiler myoblasts but TLR1A was detected only in embryonic layer chick myoblasts. Chick TLR1/2 ligands, Pam3CSK4 and FSL-1, induced inflammatory ILs in both layer and broiler myoblasts but a TLR4 ligand, lipopolysaccharide, scarcely promoted. This is the first report on TLR ligand-dependent inflammatory responses in chick myoblasts, which may provide useful information to chicken breeding and meat production industries.

Keywords: Inflammatory response; Interleukin; Skeletal muscle myoblast; Toll-like receptor.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Avian Proteins / metabolism*
  • Bird Diseases / immunology*
  • Chick Embryo
  • Chickens / immunology*
  • Diglycerides / immunology
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Inflammation / immunology*
  • Lipopeptides / immunology
  • Lipopolysaccharides / immunology
  • Muscle, Skeletal / physiology*
  • Myoblasts / physiology*
  • Oligopeptides / immunology
  • Toll-Like Receptors / metabolism
  • Transcriptome


  • Avian Proteins
  • Diglycerides
  • FSL-1 lipoprotein, synthetic
  • Lipopeptides
  • Lipopolysaccharides
  • Oligopeptides
  • Pam(3)CSK(4) peptide
  • Toll-Like Receptors