Medical Hypoparathyroidism

Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am. 2018 Dec;47(4):797-808. doi: 10.1016/j.ecl.2018.07.006. Epub 2018 Oct 11.


Hypoparathyroidism is a metabolic disorder characterized by hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and inadequate levels of or function of parathyroid hormone (PTH). The authors review the nonsurgical or medical causes of hypoparathyroidism. The most common of the nonsurgical causes is autoimmune destruction of the parathyroid. Magnesium deficiency or excess can cause a functional hypoparathyroidism. Genetic conditions result in hypoparathyroidism as part of a syndrome or in isolation. Pseudohypoparathyroidism reflects a resistance to PTH. Infiltrative, metastatic, radiation destruction, mineral deposition, or idiopathic are uncommon causes of hypoparathyroidism. This article reviews the causes of hypoparathyroidism and an approach to the evaluation of this condition.

Keywords: Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 hypocalcemia; Autosomal dominant hypocalcemia; Genetics; Medical hypoparathyroidism; Parathyroid hormone; Pseudohypoparathyroidism.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autoimmune Diseases / complications
  • Autoimmune Diseases / therapy
  • Hormone Replacement Therapy
  • Humans
  • Hypoparathyroidism / etiology
  • Hypoparathyroidism / therapy*
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Radiotherapy / adverse effects


  • Parathyroid Hormone