Obesity continues to be a major public health crisis, both nationally and globally. Metabolic and bariatric surgery has been proven to be a safe and effective treatment for this multifactorial chronic disease. However, inconsistent and varied results in bariatric nutrition literature have prevented the implementation of standardized guidelines. The purpose of this Evidence Analysis Library systematic review is to provide an evidence-based summary of nutrition-related practices in bariatric surgery. The systematic review methodology of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics was applied. A total of 27 research studies were included, analyzed, and assessed for risk of bias by trained evidence analysts. The literature included in the systematic review was published from 2003 to 2015. Evaluation of the literature resulted in the development of five graded conclusion statements. Limited research demonstrates that registered dietitian nutritionists play a role in improving weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery; further research is needed to understand the role of registered dietitian nutritionists in changing behaviors after bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery results in significant reductions in resting metabolic rate and postoperative energy intake. There is no significant relationship between macronutrient distribution and postoperative weight loss. The graded conclusion statements provide registered dietitian nutritionists who practice in the field of bariatric nutrition with more insight and evidence that can guide and support their recommendations.
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