Prognostic factors of patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms

Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2018 Nov;34(11):650-656. doi: 10.1016/j.kjms.2018.05.009. Epub 2018 Jun 20.


There is an increasing trend in the incidence of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NENs) worldwide. The aim of the present study was to identify the prognostic factors of patients with GEP-NENs. A cross-sectional, retrospective chart review study was conducted among patients with pathologically proven GEP-NENs between January 2003 and December 2016 at Kaohsiung Chung-Gung Memorial Hospital. A total of 97 patients who met the inclusion criteria were included (male/female = 56/41, age: 57.7 ± 15.4 years). The presentation, clinical characteristics, and disease outcomes were reviewed and analyzed. The most common primary site of the GEP-NENs was the rectum (49.5%), followed by the pancreas (17.5%), duodenum (11.3%), stomach (10.3%), colon (6.2%), and appendix (5.2%), and most GEP-NENs were hormonally nonfunctional (94.8%). There were 56 tumors classified as G1 neuroendocrine tumors (NETs), 9 as G2 NETs, and 14 as G3 neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC). Metastasis was found in 15 patients (15%). Curative treatments, such as surgery or endoscopic resection, were performed in 83.5% of patients (n = 81). The mean overall survival duration was 107.2 ± 7.8 months. The estimated 3- and 5-year overall survival rates for all patients were 84% and 82%, respectively. Logistic regression analysis showed that large tumor size, non-rectal NENs, high histopathological grading, lymphatic metastases and distant metastases were associated with poor survival. This study suggested that the presence of lymphatic or distant metastases at diagnosis is an independent risk factor for poor prognosis in patients with GEP-NENs.

Keywords: Clinical outcome; Gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors; Prognostic factors.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neuroendocrine Tumors / pathology*
  • Pancreatic Neoplasms / pathology*
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies