The Effect of Added Peanut Butter on the Glycemic Response to a High-Glycemic Index Meal: A Pilot Study

J Am Coll Nutr. May-Jun 2019;38(4):351-357. doi: 10.1080/07315724.2018.1519404. Epub 2018 Nov 5.


Objective: The purpose of this pilot study was to determine whether supplementation of a high-glycemic index breakfast meal with peanut butter attenuates the glycemic response.

Methods: Sixteen healthy adults, aged 24.1 ± 3.5 years, reported in the morning to a nutrition assessment laboratory for two days of data collection, having fasted 8 to 12 hours. On day 1 (control), fasting blood glucose (BG) was measured using glucometers, then participants consumed two slices of white bread and 250 mL apple juice (60 g carbohydrate) within 15 minutes. BG was measured again at 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after the first bite of the meal. On day 2, the protocol was repeated, except 32 g (2 tbsp) of peanut butter was added to the meal (treatment).

Results: The spike in BG was significantly lower on the treatment versus control day (35.8 ± 16.4 vs. 51.0 ± 20.8 mg/dL, respectively; p < 0.01), and BG was significantly lower on the treatment day at 15, 30, and 60 minutes post-meal consumption (p < 0.05).

Conclusions: This study indicates that supplementation with 32 g (2 tbsp) peanut butter attenuates the magnitude of BG spike and overall glycemic response to high-glycemic index meal and may be a practical, beneficial strategy to prevent undesirable elevations in BG.

Keywords: blood glucose; glucose spike; glycemic response; high glycemic index; peanut butter.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Arachis*
  • Blood Glucose*
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Female
  • Glycemic Index*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Meals
  • Pilot Projects
  • Postprandial Period
  • Young Adult


  • Blood Glucose