Choanal Atresia and Other Neonatal Nasal Anomalies

Clin Perinatol. 2018 Dec;45(4):751-767. doi: 10.1016/j.clp.2018.07.011. Epub 2018 Sep 18.


Congenital nasal deformities can cause nasal obstruction with early respiratory distress. Choanal atresia is characterized by no communication between the nasal cavity and nasopharynx. Pyriform aperture stenosis involves more anterior nasal obstruction with limited intranasal space. Nasal masses such as encephaloceles, gliomas, and dermoids are thought to be related through a skull base defect in utero. Imaging with computed tomography and MRI are helpful in distinguishing lesions and identifying intracranial communication. Nasolacrimal duct cysts can get infected and cause obstruction. Nasal septal deviation can be corrected at bedside if detected early. Evaluation and treatment are discussed with all these entities.

Keywords: Choanal atresia; Congenital nasal anomalies/deformities; Dermoids; Encephaloceles; Gliomas; Nasolacrimal duct cysts; Neonatal nasal septal deviations; Pyriform aperture stenosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Choanal Atresia / diagnostic imaging
  • Choanal Atresia / surgery*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Male
  • Nasal Obstruction / diagnostic imaging*
  • Nasal Obstruction / surgery
  • Nasal Septum / abnormalities*
  • Nasal Septum / surgery
  • Nose Neoplasms / congenital
  • Nose Neoplasms / pathology
  • Nose Neoplasms / surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngologic Surgical Procedures / methods
  • Respiratory System Abnormalities / diagnosis
  • Respiratory System Abnormalities / epidemiology
  • Respiratory System Abnormalities / surgery
  • Risk Assessment
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed / methods
  • Treatment Outcome