Dietary factors and serum antimüllerian hormone concentrations in late premenopausal women

Fertil Steril. 2018 Nov;110(6):1145-1153. doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2018.06.037.


Objective: To study the associations between dietary factors and circulating antimüllerian hormone (AMH) concentrations among late premenopausal women.

Design: AMH concentrations were measured in serum samples collected at enrollment from 296 women (aged 35-45 years) in the Sister Study cohort. Usual dietary intakes in the past 12 months were assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Dietary exposures of interest included macronutrients, dietary fat subtypes, fiber, and glycemic index. Multivariable linear regression was used to evaluate associations between dietary variables and serum AMH concentrations. We also used nutrient density models to examine isocaloric replacement of macronutrients.

Setting: Not applicable.

Patients: Women aged 35-45 years.

Interventions: Not applicable.

Main outcome measures: Serum AMH concentrations in nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL).

Results: AMH concentrations were positively associated with percentage of energy from carbohydrates (β per 5% calories = 0.141 [95% CI 0.023, 0.259]; P trend = .019), and inversely associated with percentage of energy from fat (β per 5% calories = -0.152 [95% CI -0.299, -0.004]; P trend = .044). In analyses of dietary fat subtypes, AMH decreased with increasing monounsaturated fatty acids (P trend = .082) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (P trend = .043), particularly ω-6 fatty acids (P trend = .044), whereas no strong trend was observed for saturated fatty acids. Protein and alcohol intake were not strongly associated with AMH.

Conclusions: Our cross-sectional analyses in a sample of late premenopausal women suggest that dietary fat intake may be inversely associated with circulating AMH concentrations. Further research in prospective studies is warranted to evaluate dietary factors as potential modifiers of ovarian reserve.

Keywords: Antimullerian hormone; diet; premenopausal women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone / blood*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cohort Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Fats / blood*
  • Energy Intake / physiology
  • Feeding Behavior / physiology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Nuns*
  • Premenopause / blood*


  • Biomarkers
  • Dietary Fats
  • Anti-Mullerian Hormone