We aimed to assess the association between cruciferous vegetable intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) development among Japanese adults aged between 45 and 74 years in the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study. During 1 325 853 person-years of follow-up, 2612 CRC cases were identified. The association of cruciferous vegetable intake with CRC risk was assessed using a Cox proportional hazard regression model to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for potential confounders. No significant association was observed between the highest cruciferous vegetable intake quartile (compared with the lowest) and CRC risk in men (multivariate HRs: 1.08; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.29) and women (multivariate HRs: 0.99; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.22) and its subsites. Women showed a marginal negative association between cruciferous vegetable intake and the risk of colon cancer (CC) after excluding participants who developed CC in the first 3 years of follow-up (P for trend = 0.08); a positive association was found with proximal CC in men. Cruciferous vegetable intake does not have a significant association with CRC risk in the Japanese general population.