Fungal vaccines, mechanism of actions and immunology: A comprehensive review

Biomed Pharmacother. 2019 Jan;109:333-344. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2018.10.075. Epub 2018 Nov 3.


Fungal infections include a wide range of opportunistic and invasive diseases. Two of four major fatal diseases in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are related to the fungal infections, cryptococcosis, and pneumocystosis. Disseminated candidiasis and different clinical forms of aspergillosis annually impose expensive medical costs to governments and hospitalized patients and ultimately lead to high mortality rates. Therefore, urgent implementations are necessary to prevent the expansion of these diseases. Designing an effective vaccine is one of the most important approaches in this field. So far, numerous efforts have been carried out in developing an effective vaccine against fungal infections. Some of these challenges engaged in different stages of clinical trials but none of them could be approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Here, in addition to have a comprehensive overview on the data from studied vaccine programs, we will discuss the immunology response against fungal infections. Moreover, it will be attempted to clarify the underlying immune mechanisms of vaccines targeting different fungal infections that are crucial for designing an effective vaccination strategy.

Keywords: Fungal infections; Immune response; Vaccine.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antifungal Agents / pharmacology
  • Antifungal Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Fungal Vaccines / pharmacology
  • Fungal Vaccines / therapeutic use*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Innate / drug effects
  • Immunity, Innate / immunology
  • Mycoses / immunology*
  • Mycoses / prevention & control*


  • Antifungal Agents
  • Fungal Vaccines