Electro-responsive smart electrorheological (ER) fluids consist of electrically polarizing organic or inorganic particles and insulating oils in general. In this study, we focus on various conducting polymers of polyaniline and its derivatives and copolymers, along with polypyrrole and poly(ionic liquid), which are adopted as smart and functional materials in ER fluids. Their ER characteristics, including viscoelastic behaviors of shear stress, yield stress, and dynamic moduli, and dielectric properties are expounded and appraised using polarizability measurement, flow curve testing, inductance-capacitance-resistance meter testing, and several rheological equations of state. Furthermore, their potential industrial applications are also covered.
Keywords: composite; conducting polymer; electrorheological; smart fluid; viscoelastic.