Dietary Nitrate From Beetroot Juice for Hypertension: A Systematic Review

Biomolecules. 2018 Nov 2;8(4):134. doi: 10.3390/biom8040134.

Abstract

According to current therapeutic approaches, a nitrate-dietary supplementation with beetroot juice (BRJ) is postulated as a nutritional strategy that might help to control arterial blood pressure in healthy subjects, pre-hypertensive population, and even patients diagnosed and treated with drugs. In this sense, a systematic review of random clinical trials (RCTs) published from 2008 to 2018 from PubMed/MEDLINE, ScienceDirect, and manual searches was conducted to identify studies examining the relationship between BRJ and blood pressure. The specific inclusion criteria were: (1) RCTs; (2) trials that assessed only the BRJ intake with control group; and (3) trials that reported the effects of this intervention on blood pressure. The search identified 11 studies that met the inclusion criteria. This review was able to demonstrate that BRJ supplementation is a cost-effective strategy that might reduce blood pressure in different populations, probably through the nitrate/nitrite/nitric oxide (NO₃-/NO₂-/NO) pathway and secondary metabolites found in Beta vulgaris. This easily found and cheap dietary intervention could significantly decrease the risk of suffering cardiovascular events and, in doing so, would help to diminish the mortality rate associated to this pathology. Hence, BRJ supplementation should be promoted as a key component of a healthy lifestyle to control blood pressure in healthy and hypertensive individuals. However, several factors related to BRJ intake (e.g., gender, secondary metabolites present in B. vulgaris, etc.) should be studied more deeply.

Keywords: Beta vulgaris; blood pressure; dietary supplements; hypertension; nitric oxide.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Beta vulgaris / chemistry*
  • Bias
  • Blood Pressure
  • Diet*
  • Female
  • Fruit and Vegetable Juices*
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Hypertension / physiopathology
  • Male
  • Nitrates / therapeutic use*
  • Nitric Oxide / metabolism
  • Nitrites / metabolism
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
  • Risk Factors

Substances

  • Nitrates
  • Nitrites
  • Nitric Oxide