Bisphenol A exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk: a meta-analysis

BMC Endocr Disord. 2018 Nov 6;18(1):81. doi: 10.1186/s12902-018-0310-y.


Background: This meta-analytic study explored the relationship between the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and bisphenol A concentrations.

Methods: The Embase and Medline (PubMed) databases were searched, using relevant keywords, for studies published between 1980 and 2018. A total of 16 studies, twelve cross-sectional, two case-control and one prospective, were included in the meta-analysis. The odds ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were determined across the sixteen studies. The OR and its 95% CI of diabetes associated with bisphenol A were estimated using both fixed-effects and random-effects models.

Results: A total of 41,320 subjects were included. Fourteen of the sixteen studies included in the analysis provided measurements of urine bisphenol A levels and two study provided serum bisphenol A levels. Bisphenol A concentrations in human bio-specimens showed positive associations with T2DM risk (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.14, 1.44). A sensitivity analysis indicated that urine bisphenol A concentrations were positively associated with T2DM risk (OR 1.20, 95% CI 1.09, 1.31).

Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicated that Bisphenol A exposure is positively associated with T2DM risk in humans.

Keywords: Bisphenol a (BPA); Diabetes mellitus (DM); Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs); Fasting plasma glucose; Hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c); Meta-analysis; Obesity; Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Benzhydryl Compounds / adverse effects*
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / blood
  • Benzhydryl Compounds / urine
  • Blood Glucose / drug effects
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / chemically induced*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / urine
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Estrogens, Non-Steroidal / adverse effects*
  • Estrogens, Non-Steroidal / blood
  • Estrogens, Non-Steroidal / urine
  • Humans
  • Phenols / adverse effects*
  • Phenols / blood
  • Phenols / urine


  • Benzhydryl Compounds
  • Blood Glucose
  • Estrogens, Non-Steroidal
  • Phenols
  • bisphenol A