Successful Emergent Endovascular Mechanical Thrombectomy for Pediatric and Young Adult Cerebral Venous Sinus Thrombosis in Coma

World Neurosurg. 2019 Feb;122:203-208. doi: 10.1016/j.wneu.2018.10.189. Epub 2018 Nov 4.

Abstract

Background: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) is a relatively uncommon cause of stroke in pediatric patients and young adults. The clinical course of CVST is also highly variable. In particular, coma has been noted as a predictor of poor outcome. The standard treatment for CVST in adults is systemic anticoagulation, which can lead to recanalization. Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) is considered as possibly indicated in the event of failure to respond to anticoagulation or a comatose state. However, the role of endovascular therapy in the management of pediatric and young adult CVST is unclear. Here, we describe 3 cases of successful emergent EMT for pediatric and young adult CVST presenting in a comatose state.

Case description: A 17-year-old boy presented with rapid deterioration and a comatose state despite anticoagulation using heparin. Emergent EMT was performed for CVST. Balloon percutaneous transmural angioplasty and catheter aspiration were repeatedly performed, and partial recanalization of the superior sagittal sinus was achieved by the end of the procedure. The child was discharged without neurologic deficits. Another 2 comatose cases with CVST underwent emergent EMT with balloon percutaneous transmural angioplasty and catheter aspiration, and partial recanalization was again achieved. These patients finally showed complete superior sagittal sinus recanalization and were discharged without neurologic deficits.

Conclusion: Pediatric and young comatose CVST warrants endovascular mechanical thrombectomy as soon as possible.

Keywords: Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis; Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy; Pediatric.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Coma / complications
  • Coma / diagnostic imaging
  • Coma / therapy*
  • Endovascular Procedures*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Mechanical Thrombolysis*
  • Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial / complications
  • Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial / diagnostic imaging
  • Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial / therapy*
  • Venous Thrombosis / complications
  • Venous Thrombosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Venous Thrombosis / therapy*
  • Young Adult