Objective: To examine racial differences in outcomes with coronary computed tomographic angiography (CCTA) vs standard emergency department (ED) evaluation for chest pain.
Design: Retrospective analysis of the prospective, randomized, multicenter Rule Out Myocardial Ischemia/Infarction by Computer Assisted Tomography (ROMICAT-II) trial.
Setting: ED at nine hospitals in the United States.
Participants: 940 patients who were Caucasian or African American (AA) presenting to the ED with chest pain.
Interventions: CCTA or standard ED evaluation.
Main outcome measures: Length of stay, hospital admission, direct ED discharge, downstream testing and repeat ED visit or hospitalization for recurrent chest pain at 28 days. Safety end points: missed acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and cumulative radiation exposure during the index visit and follow-up period.
Results: 659 (66%) patients self-identified as Caucasian and 281 (28%) self-identified as AA. AA were younger and more often female compared with Caucasians, had a higher prevalence of hypertension (64% vs 49%, P<.001) and diabetes (23% vs 14%, P<.001) and a lower prevalence of hyperlipidemia (28% vs 51%, P<.001). ACS was more frequent among Caucasians (10% vs 2%, P<.001). Randomization to CCTA resulted in a reduction in median LOS for Caucasians (7.4 vs 24.7 hours, P<.001) and AA (8.9 vs. 26.3, P<.001; P-interaction=.88). Both AA and Caucasian patients experienced greater radiation exposure and more downstream testing with CCTA compared with standard evaluation.
Conclusions: Early CCTA reduced median LOS for both AA and Caucasian patients presenting to the ED with chest pain by approximately 17 hours compared with standard evaluation.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01084239.
Keywords: Acute Coronary Syndromes; Cardiac Computed Tomography; Chest Pain; Emergency Department; Ethnicity/Race.