The Role of Comorbidity in Mortality After Hip Fracture: A Nationwide Norwegian Study of 38,126 Women With Hip Fracture Matched to a General-Population Comparison Cohort

Am J Epidemiol. 2019 Feb 1;188(2):398-407. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwy251.


Hip fracture patients often have comorbid conditions. We investigated whether the combination of comorbidity and hip fracture could explain the previously observed excess mortality among hip fracture patients as compared with the general population. Using a population-based matched study design with 38,126 Norwegian women who suffered a hip fracture during the period 2009-2015 and the same number of women in a matched comparison cohort, we matched participants on prefracture comorbidity, age, and education. We estimated relative survival and additive and multiplicative comorbidity-hip fracture interactions. An additive comorbidity-hip fracture interaction of 4 or 9 additional deaths per 100 patients, depending on Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) score, was observed 1 year after hip fracture. Among women with a CCI score of ≥3, 15 additional deaths per 100 patients were observed; of these, 9 deaths could be attributed to the interaction and 6 to the hip fracture per se. On the relative scale, we observed increasing heterogeneity in survival by comorbidity over time; survival was reduced by 39% after 6 years among patients with a CCI score of ≥3, while among women with no comorbidity, survival was reduced by 17% (hip fracture vs. no hip fracture). In summary, prefracture comorbidity was associated with short-term absolute excess mortality and long-term relative excess mortality.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Comorbidity
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • Hip Fractures / epidemiology*
  • Hip Fractures / mortality
  • Humans
  • Middle Aged
  • Norway / epidemiology
  • Postmenopause
  • Registries
  • Risk Factors
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Women's Health