Background: There is a body of evidence to suggest that cigarette smoking increases the risk of cervical cancer in women, but no study has examined the magnitude of the association in Japanese women. Here, we evaluated the association between cigarette smoking and the risk of cervical cancer in Japanese women based on a systematic review of epidemiological evidence.
Methods: Original data were obtained from a MEDLINE search using PubMed or from a search of the 'Ichushi' database, as well as by a manual search. Evaluation of associations was based on the strength of evidence and the magnitude of association, together with biological plausibility as evaluated previously by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Meta-analysis of associations was also conducted to obtain a summarized overview of the data.
Results: We identified two cohort studies and three case-control studies. All five studies had indicated strong positive associations between cigarette smoking and the risk of cervical cancer. Our summary estimate indicated that the relative risk (RR) for individuals who had ever-smoked relative to never-smokers was 2.03 (95% confidence interval: 1.49-2.57). Four studies had also demonstrated dose-response relationships between cigarette smoking and the risk of cervical cancer.
Conclusion: We conclude that there is convincing evidence that cigarette smoking increases the risk of cervical cancer among Japanese women.