The need to maximize agricultural productivity has made pesticides an indispensable part of current times. Farmers are unaware of the lurking consequences of the pesticide exposure, which endanger their health. It also puts the unsuspecting consumers in peril. The pesticides (from organophosphates, organochlorine, and carbamate class) disrupt the immune and hormonal signaling, causing recurrent inflammation, which leads to a wide array pathologies, including teratogenicity. Numerous farmers have fallen victim to neural disorders-driven suicides and lungs, prostate/breast cancer-caused untimely deaths. Green revolution which significantly escalated agricultural productivity is backfiring now. It is high time that environmental and agricultural authorities act to restrain the excessive usage of the detrimental chemicals and educate farmers regarding the crisis. This review discusses the biological mechanisms of pesticide-driven pathogenesis (such as the activation or inhibition of caspase, serine protease, acetylcholinesterase) and presents the pesticide-exposure-caused health deterioration in USA, India, and Africa. This holistic and critical review should be an eye-opener for general public, and a guide for researchers.
Keywords: Acetylcholinesterase; Neural inflammation; Neuropsychotic diseases; Pesticides; Serine protease.