Background: Pulmonary function impairments are more common among people living with HIV (PLWH), as are contributing risk behaviors. To understand the effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection independent of risk behaviors, pulmonary function was evaluated in lifestyle-comparable HIV-infected and -uninfected AGEhIV cohort participants.
Methods: Prevalence of obstructive lung disease in 544 HIV-infected and 529 HIV-uninfected participants was determined using spirometry. Logistic regression was used to assess HIV as a determinant of obstructive lung disease. Additional explanatory models were constructed to explain observed differences.
Results: The unadjusted obstructive lung disease prevalence was similar in HIV-infected (23.0%) and -uninfected (23.4%) participants. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed an effect modification whereby obstructive lung disease prevalence among persons with limited smoking experience was notably lower among HIV-infected compared with HIV-uninfected participants. This resulted from a lower forced vital capacity (FVC) in HIV-infected participants but similar 1-second forced expiratory volume (FEV1), especially in those with limited smoking experience.
Conclusions: The lower FVC in HIV-infected participants could indicate HIV-related restrictive or fibrotic pulmonary changes. Factors that decrease the FVC could obscure emphysematous changes in the lungs of PLWH when using the FEV1/FVC ratio as single diagnostic measure.
Clinical trials registration: NCT01466582.
Keywords: HIV infection; chronic obstructive; pulmonary disease; pulmonary fibrosis; respiratory function tests; spirometry.
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