Association of Long-term Ambient Black Carbon Exposure and Oxidative Stress Allelic Variants With Intraocular Pressure in Older Men

JAMA Ophthalmol. 2019 Feb 1;137(2):129-137. doi: 10.1001/jamaophthalmol.2018.5313.

Abstract

Importance: Elevated intraocular pressure is a major risk factor for glaucoma, a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. Environmental air pollution has been suggested as a potential contributor to elevated intraocular pressure; however, no studies have demonstrated such an association to date.

Objective: To investigate the association of long-term ambient black carbon exposure with intraocular pressure in community-dwelling older adults.

Design, setting, and participants: This population-based analysis, conducted from October 18, 2017, through March 22, 2018, used data from the all-male, New England-based Normative Aging Study of the US Department of Veterans Affairs. The analysis included 419 older men with a total of 911 follow-up study visits between January 1, 2000, and December 30, 2011. Intraocular pressure was measured by Goldmann applanation tonometry during the study visits. Validated spatiotemporal models were used to generate 1-year black carbon exposure levels at the addresses of the participants.

Main outcomes and measures: An independently developed genetic score approach was used to calculate allelic risk scores for 3 pathways associated with black carbon toxicity: endothelial function, oxidative stress, and metal processing. The associations among black carbon exposure, allelic risk scores, and intraocular pressure were explored using linear mixed-effects models.

Results: All 419 participants were men with a mean (SD) age of 75.3 (6.9) years. The mean (SD) 1-year black carbon exposure was 0.51 (0.18) μg/m3, and the mean (SD) intraocular pressure for the left eye was 14.1 (2.8) mm Hg and for the right eye was 14.1 (3.0) mm Hg. Of the 911 visits, 520 (57.1%) had a high endothelial function allelic risk score, 644 (70.7%) had a high metal-processing allelic risk score, and 623 (68.4%) had a high oxidative stress allelic risk score. In fully adjusted linear mixed-effects models, the association of black carbon with intraocular pressure was greater in individuals with a high oxidative stress allelic score (β = 0.36; 95% CI, 0.003-0.73) compared with individuals with a low score (β = -0.35; 95% CI, -0.86 to 0.15).

Conclusions and relevance: Ambient black carbon exposure may be a risk factor for increased intraocular pressure in individuals susceptible to other biological oxidative stressors. If additional studies confirm these results, monitoring ambient black carbon exposure and physiological oxidative stress may prevent the development and progression of intraocular pressure-related disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Air Pollutants / adverse effects*
  • Alleles*
  • Environmental Exposure / adverse effects*
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gene-Environment Interaction*
  • Humans
  • Intraocular Pressure / drug effects*
  • Male
  • Oxidative Stress / genetics*
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Risk Factors
  • Soot / adverse effects*
  • Tonometry, Ocular
  • United States
  • United States Department of Veterans Affairs

Substances

  • Air Pollutants
  • Soot