Extracorporeal shockwave treatment impedes tooth movement in rats

Head Face Med. 2018 Nov 12;14(1):24. doi: 10.1186/s13005-018-0181-5.


Background: Accelerated tooth movement has been a topic of interest for orthodontic research recently. Surgically facilitated orthodontic treatment has been shown to be an effective approach to accelerate tooth movement; however, it remains invasive, requires additional surgery, and may increase post-operative complications. In this study, we evaluate the effects of extracorporeal shockwave treatment (ESWT), a non-invasive approach to regenerate alveolar bone, on orthodontic tooth movement in rats.

Materials and methods: Seventy-two male rats, aged 10 weeks old, were subjected to 10-cN closed-coil nickel-titanium springs for unilateral maxillary first molar tooth movement. One group of rats received a single treatment of extracorporeal shockwave treatment at 500 impulses at energy flux density 0.1 mJ/mm2, with a pulse rate of 5 pulses per second immediately after spring installation while the non-ESWT-treated group served as a control group. The rats were sacrificed at day 3, 7, 14, 21 and 28 for tooth movement evaluation and sample analyses. Faxitron radiography, histological, double bone labeling and gene expression analyses were performed. Serum biochemistry was evaluated at day 3, 7 and 28 of the study. Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance was used to determine the mean difference among groups, and multiple comparisons were analyzed by Mann-Whitney-U tests with a significance level = 0.05.

Results: The results demonstrated that tooth movement in the ESWT-treated rats (0.11 ± 0.07 mm) was impeded compared to the tooth movement in the non-ESWT-treated rats (0.44 ± 0.09 mm). ESWT up-regulated several osteoblastic and osteoclastic gene markers and cytokines; however, the effects on osteoclasts were only transient. Double-fluorescence bone labeling demonstrated that osteoblastic activity increased after ESWT treatment. There was no difference in systemic RANKL/OPG ratio between groups.

Conclusions: ESWT at 500 impulse at energy flux density 0.1 mJ/mm2 increased osteoblast and osteoclast activities and imbalanced bone remodeling resulting in impeded tooth movement in rats.

Keywords: ESWT; Orthodontic; Rat; Shockwave; Tooth movement.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bone Remodeling*
  • Extracorporeal Shockwave Therapy*
  • Male
  • Molar / pathology
  • Molar / radiation effects*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Tooth Movement Techniques*