Primary Care Clinicians' Willingness to Care for Transgender Patients

Ann Fam Med. 2018 Nov;16(6):555-558. doi: 10.1370/afm.2298.


Transgender patients report negative experiences in health care settings, but little is known about clinicians' willingness to see transgender patients. We surveyed 308 primary care clinicians in an integrated Midwest health system and 53% responded. Most respondents were willing to provide routine care to transgender patients (85.7%) and Papanicolaou (Pap) tests (78.6%) to transgender men. Willingness to provide routine care decreased with age; willingness to provide Pap tests was higher among family physicians, those who had met a transgender person, and those with lower transphobia. Medical education should address professional and personal factors related to caring for the transgender population to increase access.

Keywords: Papanicolaou test; primary health care; transgender persons.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Attitude of Health Personnel*
  • Female
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Health Services Accessibility
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Midwestern United States
  • Papanicolaou Test / psychology
  • Physician-Patient Relations
  • Physicians, Primary Care / psychology*
  • Primary Health Care*
  • Qualitative Research
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Transgender Persons / psychology*