Purpose: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), the major endocrine pathology in pregnancy, has been associated with the development of an intense inflammatory process and increased insulin resistance. The maternal microbiota is involved in several metabolic functions; however, its role in GDM physiopathology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the composition of the microbiota at different sites and evaluate its relationship with the occurrence of GDM.
Methods: This cross-sectional study recruited women in the third trimester of gestation with and without GDM. Oral, vaginal, and stool samples were evaluated using next-generation sequencing. We included 68 participants: 26 with and 42 without GDM.
Results: The analysis of the oral microbiome did not show significant differences in phyla and genus among the studied groups. In contrast, GDM patients presented a specific vaginal and intestinal microbiome composition, which was less diverse than those found in the control group, showing genera related to dysbiosis.
Conclusions: Our findings suggest that changes in the composition of the vaginal and intestinal microbiome might be involved in the development of GDM. The follow-up of these patients in order to evaluate vaginal and intestinal samples after delivery may contribute to understanding the development of metabolic disease in women with previous GDM.
Keywords: Gestational diabetes; Intestinal microbiome; Oral microbiome; Pregnancy; Vaginal microbiome.