Melasma: Updates and perspectives

Exp Dermatol. 2019 Jun;28(6):704-708. doi: 10.1111/exd.13844. Epub 2018 Dec 21.


Management of melasma is highly challenging due to inconsistent treatment results and frequent relapses. However, recent studies revealed that melasma may not only be a disease of melanocytes, but also a photoaging skin disorder. Herein, we attempt to validate that melasma is indeed a photoaging disorder by presenting the histopathologic findings of melasma: solar elastosis, altered basement membrane, increased vascularization and increased mast cell count. We also provide some therapeutic implications based on these findings and a discussion on the latest updates and perspectives regarding treatment.

Keywords: histopathology; melasma; photoaging; treatment.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Humans
  • Laser Therapy
  • Melanosis / etiology
  • Melanosis / pathology
  • Melanosis / therapy*
  • Skin / pathology
  • Skin Aging
  • Skin Lightening Preparations / therapeutic use
  • Sunlight / adverse effects


  • Skin Lightening Preparations