Twelve dogs were randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 dogs were given Escherichia coli endotoxin and then treated with flunixin meglumine. Group 2 dogs were given endotoxin as group 1, but untreated. Group 3 dogs were given flunixin meglumine alone. The dogs were monitored clinically and urine and serum samples were collected at regular intervals for 72 hours. All surviving dogs were humanely killed after 72 hours and examined for gross and histologic lesions. Group 1 dogs all survived 72 hours, but showed prerenal azotemia, hepatocellular damage, hemorrhagic enteritis, and numerous gastric ulcerations. Three of the four dogs in group 2 died before 72 hours. Group 2 dogs showed many of the same chemical and hemodynamic changes as group 1. They had severe hemorrhage into the intestinal lumen; however, there were no gastric ulcerations. Group 3 dogs all survived and showed little physical or hematologic change. The study suggested the following: 1) flunixin meglumine was an effective drug in ameliorating the fatal effects of canine endotoxemia, 2) the effects of endotoxin in combination with flunixin meglumine, at 1.1 mg/kg body weight, caused gastric ulcerations, and 3) in normal dogs flunixin meglumine at 1.1 mg/kg body weight did not cause severe side effects or gross lesions.