Inflammatory DEpression Advances in Schizophrenia (IDEAS): A precision medicine approach of the national FACE-SZ cohort

J Affect Disord. 2019 Feb 15;245:468-474. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2018.11.004. Epub 2018 Nov 6.


Background: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a therapeutic challenge in schizophrenia (SZ). Untangling different forms of MDD appears as the best current strategy to improve remission to treatment in the so-called precision medicine approach.

Aims: The objectives of the present study were to determine (i) the prevalence of Inflammatory Depression (ID) in stabilized SZ outpatients (ii) if ID was associated with clinical or cognitive profiles that may help clinicians detecting ID (iii) if antidepressants were effective in ID and (iv) the biological correlates of ID that may orientate personalized treatments.

Method: Participants were consecutively included and received a thorough 2 days- clinical assessment.

Results: 785 subjects were recruited in the FACE-SZ cohort. 289 (36.8%) were diagnosed with MDD (remitted or unremitted), of them 57 with ID (19.7%). No clinical or cognitive features were associated with ID (all p > 0.05). ID has been associated with increased abdominal perimeter (aOR = 4.48, p = 0.002) and latent Toxoplasma infection (aOR = 2.19, p = 0.04). While antidepressants were associated with decreased depressive symptoms level in ID, 44% of the subjects remained unremitted under antidepressant, with no association with CRP blood levels.

Conclusions: ID may not differ from other forms of depression by its clinical symptoms but by its aetiologies. ID is associated with increased perivisceral fat and latent Toxoplasma infection that are both potentially related to gut/microbiota disturbances. Specific anti-inflammatory drugs and microbiota-targeted therapeutics appear as promising strategies in the treatment of inflammatory depression in schizophrenia.

Keywords: Adiposity; Depression; Inflammation; Schizophrenia; Toxoplasma.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antidepressive Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / drug therapy*
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / epidemiology
  • Depressive Disorder, Major / psychology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Precision Medicine / methods*
  • Prevalence
  • Schizophrenia / complications*
  • Schizophrenic Psychology*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antidepressive Agents