Vitamin K-Dependent Coagulation Factors That May be Responsible for Both Bleeding and Thrombosis (FII, FVII, and FIX)

Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2018 Dec;24(9_suppl):42S-47S. doi: 10.1177/1076029618811109. Epub 2018 Nov 14.


Vitamin K-dependent clotting factors are commonly divided into prohemorrhagic (FII, FVII, FIX, and FX) and antithrombotic (protein C and protein S). Furthermore, another protein (protein Z) does not seem strictly correlated with blood clotting. As a consequence of this assumption, vitamin K-dependent defects were considered as hemorrhagic or thrombotic disorders. Recent clinical observations, and especially, recent advances in molecular biology investigations, have demonstrated that this was incorrect. In 2009, it was demonstrated that the mutation Arg338Leu in exon 8 of FIX was associated with the appearance of a thrombophilic state and venous thrombosis. The defect was characterized by a 10-fold increased activity in FIX activity, while FIX antigen was only slightly increased (FIX Padua). On the other hand, it was noted on clinical grounds that the thrombosis, mainly venous, was present in about 2% to 3% of patients with FVII deficiency. It was subsequently demonstrated that 2 mutations in FVII, namely, Arg304Gln and Ala294Val, were particularly affected. Both these mutations are type 2 defects, namely, they show low activity but normal or near-normal FVII antigen. More recently, in 2011-2012, it was noted that prothrombin defects due to mutations of Arg596 to Leu, Gln, or Trp in exon 15 cause the appearance of a dysprothrombinemia that shows no bleeding tendency but instead a prothrombotic state with venous thrombosis. On the contrary, no abnormality of protein C or protein S has been shown to be associated with bleeding rather than with thrombosis. These studies have considerably widened the spectrum and significance of blood coagulation studies.

Keywords: bleeding; prothrombin complex; thrombosis; vitamin K.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Blood Coagulation Factors / genetics
  • Hemorrhage / genetics
  • Hemorrhage / metabolism*
  • Hemorrhage / pathology
  • Humans
  • Mutation*
  • Thrombosis / genetics
  • Thrombosis / metabolism*
  • Thrombosis / pathology
  • Vitamin K / genetics
  • Vitamin K / metabolism*


  • Blood Coagulation Factors
  • Vitamin K