Maternity blues: risk factors in Greek population and validity of the Greek version of Kennerley and Gath's blues questionnaire

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2020 Jul;33(13):2253-2262. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2018.1548594. Epub 2018 Nov 28.


Aim: To validate the Greek version of Kennerley and Gath's Blues Questionnaire (BQ) and gather further knowledge on maternity blues (MB) associations with certain clinical and sociodemographic factors in Greek population.Material and methods: 116 postpartum women, who met the inclusion criteria, completed the Blues Questionnaire and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale on the third day after delivery. Sociodemographic and clinical data were also collected.Results: Fifty women (43.1%) experienced severe MB on the third day postpartum. Lower number of previous births, fewer years of marriage, and husband's occupation were found to be associated with MB occurrence. Of them, years of marriage (odds 0.21, p = .001) and husband's occupation in private sector (odds 1.21, p = .04) were independent predictors of MB in logistic regression analysis. Cronbach's α for the total 28-item Greek version of BQ was 0.85. Cluster analysis in our data showed that the optimal number of clusters of BQ items was 4; these four clusters of items presented similarities with the Bartholomew and Horowitz's four-category model of attachment styles (avoidant - dismissing, preoccupied, secure, avoidant - fearful).Conclusions: The Greek version of Blues Questionnaire is a reliable tool for the detection and measurement of MB. Fewer years of marriage and the economic insecurity seem to have strong impact on the occurrence of MB. Further investigation is needed to evaluate whether the phenomenon of MB is associated with parental or mother-to-infant bonding disorders.

Keywords: Attachment; maternity blues; neonates; puerperium.

Publication types

  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Depression, Postpartum / diagnosis*
  • Depression, Postpartum / etiology
  • Depression, Postpartum / psychology
  • Female
  • Greece
  • Humans
  • Prospective Studies
  • Psychiatric Status Rating Scales / standards*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Risk Factors
  • Surveys and Questionnaires / standards*
  • Translations