In vivo, in vitro and pharmacologic models of Parkinson's disease

Physiol Res. 2019 Mar 6;68(1):17-24. doi: 10.33549/physiolres.933895. Epub 2018 Oct 23.


Parkinson's disease (PD), which is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease, is firstly defined after James Parkinson's report. It carries motor symptoms such as resting tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity of skeletal muscle and freezing of gait. Furthermore, non-motor symptoms such as cognitive and behavioral problems, besides sensory impairments are seen in the patients. However, they may also suffer from sleep disorders or autonomic dysfunction. Although there are some medications in order to symptomatic management, but unfortunately, scientist could not have found exact approaches to cure this disease. Hence, producing a model which can express the most pathophysiologic and behavioral aspects of the disease is a desire. In this paper, we aimed to describe the different models of Parkinson's disease in brief.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Humans
  • MPTP Poisoning / chemically induced
  • MPTP Poisoning / genetics
  • MPTP Poisoning / metabolism
  • MPTP Poisoning / pathology
  • Oxidopamine / toxicity
  • Parkinson Disease / genetics
  • Parkinson Disease / metabolism*
  • Parkinson Disease / pathology*


  • Oxidopamine