Innate immune memory is an emerging area of research. However, innate immune memory at major mucosal sites remains poorly understood. Here, we show that respiratory viral infection induces long-lasting memory alveolar macrophages (AMs). Memory AMs are programed to express high MHC II, a defense-ready gene signature, and increased glycolytic metabolism, and produce, upon re-stimulation, neutrophil chemokines. Using a multitude of approaches, we reveal that the priming, but not maintenance, of memory AMs requires the help from effector CD8 T cells. T cells jump-start this process via IFN-γ production. We further find that formation and maintenance of memory AMs are independent of monocytes or bone marrow progenitors. Finally, we demonstrate that memory AMs are poised for robust trained immunity against bacterial infection in the lung via rapid induction of chemokines and neutrophilia. Our study thus establishes a new paradigm of immunological memory formation whereby adaptive T-lymphocytes render innate memory of mucosal-associated macrophages.
Keywords: CD8 T cells; IFN-γ; Streptococcus pneumoniae; T-cell help; innate immune memory; lung; memory alveolar macrophages; trained immunity; viral infection.
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