Zika virus (ZIKV), which emerged in regions endemic to dengue virus (DENV), is vertically transmitted and results in adverse pregnancy outcomes. Antibodies to DENV can cross-react with ZIKV, but whether these antibodies influence ZIKV vertical transmission remains unclear. Here, we find that DENV antibodies increase ZIKV infection of placental macrophages (Hofbauer cells [HCs]) from 10% to over 80% and enhance infection of human placental explants. ZIKV-anti-DENV antibody complexes increase viral binding and entry into HCs but also result in blunted type I interferon, pro-inflammatory cytokine, and antiviral responses. Additionally, ZIKV infection of HCs and human placental explants is enhanced in an immunoglobulin G subclass-dependent manner, and targeting FcRn reduces ZIKV replication in human placental explants. Collectively, these findings support a role for pre-existing DENV antibodies in enhancement of ZIKV infection of select placental cell types and indicate that pre-existing immunity to DENV should be considered when addressing ZIKV vertical transmission.
Keywords: Zika virus; antibody-dependent enhancement; cross-reactive antibodies; dengue virus; placental macrophages; type I interferon; vertical transmission.
Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.