Characterization, anti-oxidative effect of grape seed powder and in silico affinity profiling of polyphenolic and extra-phenolic compounds for calpain inhibition

J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2019 Feb 5:164:365-372. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2018.11.003. Epub 2018 Nov 3.


Vitis vinifera grape is a highly cultivated crop and solid wastes generated by the wine industry are largely under exploited. Plentiful studies have intended analyzing the polyphenolic content of grape seeds but characterization of non phenolic compounds is rather scarce. The present study aimed at the selective extraction of lipid, phenolic and aqueous phases from grape seed powder (GSP) in order to establish their intimate composition, as well as their antioxidant and chelating properties underlying partly their biological effects. Major non phenolic compounds identified in the lipid phase were glyceryl-monostearate and 2-monostearin whereas fructofuranose and sucrose were the most abundant in the aqueous phase. Among the most abundant compounds detected in the various phases, the polyphenol quercetin exhibited the best affinity and free binding energy towards the active site of the calcium-dependent protease calpain. Polyphenols likely constitute the bioactive part of GSP that should be exploited as safe modulators of intracellular signaling which is likely at the basis of their health beneficial effects. Nevertheless other compounds as lipids or sugars should be valorized along with polyphenols to improve their bioavailability into highly protected organs as brain or eye.

Keywords: Calpain; Docking; Extraphenolic; Grape seed powder; Polyphenols.

MeSH terms

  • Antioxidants / analysis
  • Antioxidants / chemistry
  • Antioxidants / pharmacology*
  • Calpain / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • Calpain / chemistry
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / instrumentation
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods
  • Glycerides / analysis
  • Glycerides / chemistry
  • Glycerides / pharmacology
  • Grape Seed Extract / analysis
  • Grape Seed Extract / chemistry
  • Grape Seed Extract / pharmacology*
  • Molecular Docking Simulation
  • Molecular Dynamics Simulation
  • Oxidative Stress
  • Polyphenols / analysis
  • Polyphenols / chemistry
  • Polyphenols / pharmacology
  • Powders
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Sucrose / analysis
  • Sucrose / chemistry
  • Sucrose / pharmacology
  • Vitis / chemistry*


  • Antioxidants
  • Glycerides
  • Grape Seed Extract
  • Polyphenols
  • Powders
  • glyceryl monostearate
  • Sucrose
  • Calpain