Optimal Insulin Bolus Dosing in Type 1 Diabetes Management: Neural Network Approach Exploiting CGM Sensor Information

Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2018 Jul:2018:1-4. doi: 10.1109/EMBC.2018.8512250.


Type 1 diabetes (TID) therapy is based on multiple daily injections of exogenous insulin. The so-called insulin bolus calculators facilitate insulin dose calculation to the patients by implementing a standard formula SF which, besides some patient-related parameters, also considers the current value of blood glucose concentration (BG), normally measured by the patient through a fingerprick device. The recent approval by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to use the measurements collected by wearable continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) sensors for insulin dosing of fers new perspectives. Indeed, CGM sensors provide real-time information on both glucose concentration and rate of change, currently not considered in the SF. The purpose of this work is to preliminary investigate the possibility of using neural networks (NN)s for the calculation of meal insulin bolus dose exploiting CGM-based information. Using the UVa/Padova TID Simulator, we generated data of 100 subjects in 9-h, single-meal, noise-free scenarios. In particular, for each subject we analyzed different meal conditions in terms of carbohydrate intakes, preprandial BG and glucose rate-of -change. Then, a fully-connected feedforward NN was trained, with the aim of estimating the insulin bolus needed to obtain the best glycemic outcomes according to the blood glucose risk index (BGRI). Preliminary results show that by using the NN to calculate insulin doses lower BGRI values are obtained, on average, compared to the SF. These results encourage further development of the approach and its assessment in more challenging scenarios.

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose / analysis
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring / methods
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Humans
  • Insulin / administration & dosage*
  • Insulin Infusion Systems
  • Neural Networks, Computer


  • Blood Glucose
  • Insulin