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. 2018 Nov 14;15(11):2556.
doi: 10.3390/ijerph15112556.

Correlates of Transitions in Tobacco Product Use by U.S. Adult Tobacco Users Between 2013⁻2014 and 2014⁻2015: Findings From the PATH Study Wave 1 and Wave 2

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Correlates of Transitions in Tobacco Product Use by U.S. Adult Tobacco Users Between 2013⁻2014 and 2014⁻2015: Findings From the PATH Study Wave 1 and Wave 2

Karin A Kasza et al. Int J Environ Res Public Health. .
Free PMC article


More than half of adult tobacco users in the United States (U.S.) transitioned in tobacco product use between 2013⁻2014 and 2014⁻2015. We examine how characteristics of adult tobacco users in the U.S. relate to transitions in tobacco product use. Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) Study data were analyzed from 12,862 adult current tobacco users who participated in Wave 1 (W1, 2013⁻2014) and Wave 2 (W2, 2014⁻2015). Three types of transitions were examined-(1) adding tobacco product(s); (2) switching to non-cigarette tobacco product(s); and (3) discontinuing all tobacco use-among those currently using: (1) any tobacco product; (2) cigarettes only (i.e., exclusive cigarette); and (3) cigarettes plus another tobacco product(s) (i.e., poly-cigarette). Multinomial logistic regression analyses determined relative risk of type of transition versus no transition as a function of demographic and tobacco use characteristics. Transitions in tobacco product use among adult tobacco users were common overall, but varied among different demographic groups, including by age, sex, sexual orientation, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and poverty level. Further, cigarette smokers with higher dependence scores were more likely to add product(s) and less likely to discontinue tobacco use compared to those with low dependence scores. That high nicotine dependence is a barrier to discontinuing tobacco use adds evidence to support policy to lower nicotine content of cigarettes and to evaluate new products for their potential to reduce cigarette use.

Keywords: cigarettes; correlate; demographic; dependence; electronic nicotine delivery systems (ENDS); epidemiology; longitudinal; population; tobacco; transition.

Conflict of interest statement

Compton reports long-term stock holdings in General Electric, the 3M Companies, and Pfizer Incorporated, unrelated to this manuscript; Cummings has received grant funding from Pfizer, Inc., to study the impact of a hospital based tobacco cessation intervention. Cummings also receives funding as an expert witness in litigation filed against the tobacco industry; Goniewicz receives fees for serving on an advisory board from Johnson & Johnson and grant support from Pfizer outside of the submitted work; Niaura reports having been a witness for plaintiffs vs. tobacco companies, receiving speaker fees, receiving honoraria, sitting on advisory boards, being a site PI, and consulting for pharmaceutical companies testing and marketing smoking cessation aids, but not in the last 6 years. Fong has a Senior Investigator Award from the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research and Prevention Scientist Award from the Canadian Cancer Society Research Institute. Conway reports preparing this article while employed at the NIH/National Institute on Drug Abuse. No other potential conflict of interest relevant to this manuscript was reported.

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