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The Phenylpropanoid Case - It Is Transport That Matters


The Phenylpropanoid Case - It Is Transport That Matters

Wanda Biała et al. Front Plant Sci.


Phenylpropanoids fulfill numerous physiological functions, essential for plant growth and development, as well as plant-environment interactions. Over the last few decades, many studies have shown that exquisite regulatory mechanisms at multiple levels control the phenylpropanoid metabolic pathway. Deciphering this pathway not only provides a greater, basic understanding of plant specialized metabolism, but also enhances our ability to rationally design plant metabolic pathways for future applications. Despite the identification of the participating enzymes of this complex, biosynthetic machinery, we still lack a complete picture of other genes, enzymes, and metabolites essential for regulation and compartmentation/distribution of phenylpropanoids. Compartmentation, as well as distribution, are critical for the fate/functioning of those molecules, and their effective biosynthesis. At the cellular level, we have narrowed down our understanding of these processes to organelles. Furthermore, various, overlapping, but not exclusive scenarios of phenylpropanoid distribution within the cell have also been described. The cross-membrane dynamics, but also intercellular communication of different branches from phenylpropanoid biosynthesis have become an exciting research frontier in plant science. The intra- and intercellular channeling of intermediates by various transport mechanisms and notably membrane transporters could be a meaningful tool that ensures, inter alia, efficient metabolite production.

Keywords: intermediates; membrane transporters; metabolons; phenylpropanoids; transport.


Scheme of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Direct interactions between particular biosynthetic enzymes, demonstrated by means of co-immunoprecipitation, BiFC or FRET, are illustrated by red arrows. Discontinuous lines indicate that certain steps along the pathway are not included in the figure. The enzymes are: PAL, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; C4H, cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase; 4CL, 4-coumarate:CoA ligase; CCR, cinnamoyl CoA reductase; CAD, cinnamoyl alcohol dehydrogenase; PER/LAC, peroxidase/laccase; HCT, shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase; C3H/C4H, 4-coumarylshikimate 3-hydroxylase/cinnamate 4-hydroxylase; CHS, chalcone synthase; CHR, chalcone reductase; CHI, chalcone isomerase; IFS, isoflavone synthase; IOMT, isoflavone O-methyltransferase; HID, hydroxyisoflavanone dehydratase; F3H, flavanone 3 hydroxylase; DFR, dihydroflavonol 4-reductase; FNSII, flavanone synthase II; FLS, flavonol synthase.
Transport of phenylpropanoids across biological membranes, by three different mechanisms: (i) vesicle trafficking, (ii) gluthatione S-transferases (GSTs)-supported, and (iii) membrane transporters. Membrane transporters are distinguished by respective colours, as involved in intracellular transport (red), intercellular transport (blue), and extracellular transport (green). CW, cell wall; PM, plasma membrane; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; N, nucleus; V, vacuole; TGN, trans-Golgi network; PVC, pre-vacuolar compartment; PBE, phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes; PER/LAC, peroxidase/laccase; VSR, vacuolar sorting receptor; GST, glutathione S-transferase; GSH, glutathione.

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