Echocardiography in Congenital Heart Disease

Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2018 Nov-Dec;61(5-6):468-475. doi: 10.1016/j.pcad.2018.11.004. Epub 2018 Nov 13.


As the prevalence of adult congenital heart disease continues to grow secondary to advances in surgical and diagnostic techniques, it is important for a physician to supplement their examinations with non-invasive imaging techniques to assess their patients. Although a number of these patients have regular cardiology followup, some may be new patients that do not even know their cardiac history. Echocardiography has proven to be a useful tool for this purpose and its utility has expanded drastically with the development of better technology and newer techniques. In this article, we highlight some of these advancements including 2D echocardiography, agitated saline, contrast echocardiography, stress, and 4D, in addition to how each modality can help assess key aspects of the structure and function of a congenital heart defect.

Keywords: ACHD; Adult congenital heart disease; Echocardiography; Tetralogy of Fallot; Transposition of the great vessels.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Contrast Media / administration & dosage*
  • Echocardiography, Doppler*
  • Echocardiography, Four-Dimensional*
  • Echocardiography, Stress*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / diagnostic imaging*
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / physiopathology
  • Humans
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Reproducibility of Results


  • Contrast Media