Background: Local recurrence rates are high in sacral chordoma patients. Adjuvant radiotherapy may play a role in increasing local control. Patients with locally recurrent tumors continue to comprise a significant proportion of the sacral chordoma population and appear to have worse prognosis than those with primary tumors. High-quality studies comparing presentation and treatments for primary and first local recurrent sacral chordoma tumors are sparse.
Purpose: To determine: whether there is a difference in how primary and tumors at first recurrence present; the overall survival, local relapse-free survival, and distant relapse-free survival rates and prognostic factors for patients presenting with a primary tumor; overall survival, local relapse-free survival, and distant relapse-free survival rates and prognostic factors for patients presenting with a first local relapse; if there any differences in overall survival, local relapse-free survival, and distant relapse-free survival rates between patients presenting with a primary tumor and those with a first local relapse.
Study design: Retrospective case series.
Patient sample: One hundred one sacral chordoma cases.
Outcome measure: Overall survival, local relapse-free survival, and distant relapse-free survival rates.
Methods: Between 1978 and 2013, 131 patients with sacral chordoma were seen. Of them, 17 patients (13%) presented with a history of more than one local recurrence. One patient (1%) presented with multiple distant metastases. Ten patients (8%) had less than 36 months of follow-up and had no event (eg, death, local recurrence, or distant metastasis). A total of 102 patients met our inclusion criteria: patients with primary or first recurrent tumors, without metastatic disease, who underwent surgery and with at least 36 months of follow-up. One patient (1%) died intraoperatively; therefore, 101 patients were included in the present analysis. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis was performed for primary and local recurrent tumor separately and to compare primary and local recurrent tumors.
Results: We analyzed 73 primary and 28 first time recurrent sacral chordomas. Tumor size at presentation was different for primary and recurrent tumors (primary median size: 158 cm3, interquartile range [IQR]: 46-634; recurrent median size: 39 cm3, IQR: 14-175; p=.001). Overall survival at 5 and 10years for the primary tumors was 79% and 59%, respectively. Local relapse-free survival at 5years was 86%. For primary tumors, not receiving radiation was an independent predictor for worse local relapse-free survival (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.0043-0.90; p=.004) and increased tumor size was an independent predictor for both worse overall survival (HR: 1.68; 95% CI: 1.38-2.42; p=.004) and worse distant relapse-free survival (HR: 2.25; 95% CI: 1.47-3.44; p<.001). For recurrent tumors, the 5- and 10-year overall survival was 65% and 40%, respectively. Local relapse-free survival at 5years was 79% for recurrent tumors. On bivariate analysis, increased tumor size was a significant predictor for worse survival (LR median: 338 mL; IQR: 218-503 mL; no LR median: 26 mL; IQR: 9-71 mL). A trend was seen toward better distant relapse survival for tumors presenting as a primary tumor (HR: 0.51; 95% CI: 0.25-1.06; p=.072).
Conclusion: Using a combination of surgical resection and adjuvant radiotherapy allowed us to obtain a good overall survival, local relapse-free survival, and distant relapse-free survival in patients presenting with either a primary tumor or with a first time local recurrent tumor.
Keywords: Chordoma; Local recurrent; Primary; Radiotherapy; Sacrum; Survival.
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