Acquired factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency is a rare bleeding disorder that can manifest with spontaneous or delayed life-threatening hemorrhage. Causes of acquired deficiency include immune-mediated inhibition, as well as non-immune FXIII hyperconsumption or hyposynthesis. The occurrence of acquired FXIII deficiency can be idiopathic or may be associated with comorbidities, such as malignancies or autoimmune disorders. Recognition of acquired FXIII deficiency and its underlying cause is imperative, as treatment options vary depending on the etiology. Diagnosis requires quantitative FXIII testing in addition to supplemental inhibitor studies if the clinical situation suggests an immune-mediated pathophysiology. Treatment may involve FXIII replacement, antifibrinolytic administration, and/or inhibitor eradication. However, treatment targets and thresholds are undefined in acquired FXIII deficiency. This review will focus on the clinical characteristics, diagnostic issues and therapeutic options for both immune and non-immune acquired FXIII deficiency. Cases are described to illustrate the clinical features of acquired FXIII deficiency.
Keywords: Autoimmune; Bleeding; Coagulation; Factor XIII; Hemostasis.
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